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本文是“物联网怎么作业”系列的第一篇,咱们将用一种简略易懂的方法概述物联网的要害要素。

作者 | Anni Junnila

来历 | trackinno.com

翻译 | 周治中

关于物联网(IoT)的热潮现已继续许多年,闻名咨询公司Gartner乃至猜测至2020年全球将有200亿台物联网设备被接入互联网。

物联网在物流、医疗、运维、制作和修建等多个职业中有着不计其数的使用事例。这些企业引进物联网的终究意图都是节省时刻、下降成本和提高功率。

例如在制作业,物联网能够用来监控机器是否过热或许有反常轰动。这让制作商能够采纳预防性保护而不是被动式保护,然后防止计划外罢工带来的巨大丢失。

那么物联网到底是怎么作业的呢?一般来说,物联网解决方案由四大要害要素组成:

咱们的“物联网怎么作业”系列将从第一个要害要素“传感器”开端。

什么是传感器?

物联网作业流程的起点是传感器设备。传感器并不是什么新鲜事物,实际上它们现已被使用了很长很长的时刻(你知道第一个传感器是在1800年代被创造的吗?)但是,跟着物联网的鼓起,传感器的效果大大增强了。闻名IT职业网络媒体TechTarget这样界说传感器:

“传感器是一种能够对来自物理环境的某些输入进行检测和呼应的设备。这些输入可所以光、热、运动、水分、压力,或许许多其它环境现象中的恣意一种。传感器的输出一般是一种信号,被直接转换成人类可读信息并显现在传感器所在位置,或许以电信号方法经过网络传送以便读取和进一步处理。”

就物联网而言,传感器设备是从所在环境收集数据的现场硬件。

传感器的品种

现在,简直任何一个东西上都能够装置传感器,但特定的物联网使用场景需求特定的传感器。以下是最常用的传感器品种及其使用事例。

温度传感器

温度传感器在许多物联网使用中起着至关重要的效果。例如,坚持适宜的温度是许多制作工艺的要害。经过物联网传感器长途监控温度能够进行预防性保护,从而下降罢工丢失。温度传感器还能够使用于食物和医药职业的冷链监控。

位高传感器

在废物办理中,位高传感器能够确保只要在需求整理时再去清空废物桶。位高传感器的另一个使用事例是丈量液态财物库存(如燃料)中储罐的液位高度。

加速度传感器

加速度丈量在许多使用中都非常有用,比方车辆监测。加速度传感器还能够用于监测机器的反常轰动和固定物品的非授权移动(防盗)。

湿度传感器

湿度丈量在许多生产工艺中至关重要,包含制药和造纸。湿度传感器相同能够用于温室监控。

GPS追寻器

GPS追寻器能够用来追寻物资的地理位置。例如,它们能够被装置在车辆和集装箱上。

当时应战

有一些要素约束了物联网传感器的使用,首要包含:

价格便宜、尺度小,一起又有较长电池寿数(如5年)的传感器非常罕见。当时的许多传感器仍然非常粗笨:例如,GPS追寻设备足有智能手机巨细。一起,传感器的尺度还和电池寿数相关:电池越大,传感器越大。

不过,跟着技能的前进,传感器的尺度、价格和电池寿数的归纳功能会很快得到提高。

物联网作业流程的下一步是什么?

现在咱们现已安置好了传感器,是时分将收集到的数据发送出去了。在物联网使用中,传感器经过所衔接的网络(如WiFi、低功耗广域网(LPWAN)、蜂窝移动网络等)传送数据。数据接纳端一般是一个云服务,数据在其间得到剖析处理。

咱们将在下一篇文章《物联网怎么作业(2):网络衔接》中具体评论各种网络衔接。敬请期待!

英文原文:

This article is the first part of our “How IoT Works” series, in which we’ll cover the key elements of IoT in a simple, understandable way.

The hype surrounding the Internet of Things (IoT) has been huge for many years already, and Gartner estimates 20 billion devices to be connected to the internet by 2020.

IoT has countless use cases in a variety of industries such as logistics, healthcare, maintenance, manufacturing, and construction. The ultimate goal of applying IoT in businesses is to save time and money and boost efficiency.

In manufacturing, for example, IoT can be used to monitor manufacturing machines for overheating or excess vibration. That enables manufacturers to apply preventive maintenance instead of reactive maintenance so that unplanned and costly downtime can be avoided.

But how does IoT actually work? Typically, IoT solutions consist of four fundamental elements:

We’ll start our “How IoT Works” series with the first element: sensors.

What Is a Sensor?

IoT workflow starts with sensor devices. Sensor devices are nothing new: they have been used by organizations for a long time already (did you know the first sensors were invented in the 1800s?). However, the role of sensors has increased enormously with the rise of the Internet of Things. TechTarget explains sensors this way:

“A sensor is a device that detects and responds to some type of input from the physical environment. The specific input could be light, heat, motion, moisture, pressure, or any one of a great number of other environmental phenomena. The output is generally a signal that is converted to human-readable display at the sensor location or transmitted electronically over a network for reading or further processing.”

In the case of the Internet of Things, sensor devices are the on-the-ground pieces of hardware used to collect data from their environment.

Sensor Types

IoT sensor devices can be attached to practically anything nowadays, but every IoT use case requires a specific type of sensor. Here are some examples of the most used IoT sensor types and their use cases.

Temperature sensors

Temperature sensors play a critical role in many IoT applications. For example, maintaining the right temperature is crucial for many manufacturing processes. Monitoring temperature remotely with IoT sensors enables predictive maintenance and reduces expensive downtime. Another use case for temperature sensors is cold chain monitoring in food and pharmaceutical industries.

Level sensors

In waste management, for example, level sensors enable trash bins to be emptied only when needed. Another use case for level sensors is measuring tank levels (e.g. fuel) in liquid asset inventory.

Accelerometer sensors

Measuring acceleration can be useful in many use cases, such as monitoring your vehicles. Accelerometer sensors can also be useful in detecting excess vibration of a manufacturing machine or unauthorized movement of an object that should be stationary (anti-theft protection).

Humidity sensors

Measuring humidity is essential for many manufacturing processes including pharmaceutical manufacture and paper making. Humidity sensors can also be used in greenhouse monitoring.

GPS trackers

GPS trackers are used to track an asset’s geographical position. They can be used in vehicles or shipping containers, for example.

Current Challenges

There are some factors that limit the use of IoT sensor devices. The main ones are

It’s difficult to find a sensor device that is both small and cheap in addition to having a long battery life (e.g. five years). Many sensor devices today are still quite bulky: for example, GPS tracking devices can have the size of a smartphone. The size is also correlated with the battery life: the bigger the battery, the bigger the sensor device.

However, the combination of sensor devices’ size, price, and battery life will get better in the near future as technology evolves.

What’s Next in the IoT Workflow?

Now that we have the sensor devices in place, it’s time to send the collected data forward. In IoT applications, sensors are connected to a network (WiFi, LPWAN, cellular, etc.) over which the collected data is transmitted. The destination is usually a cloud-based service where the data is processed.

We’ll talk more about connectivity in our next article “How IoT Works – Part 2: Connectivity”. Stay tuned!

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